An agreement having a balance, as in a bank account, or credit card account, or Accounts Receivable account.
A reference to a place (real or virtual) that can be located by some routing algorithm, and where messages or things can be sent to or retrieved from. E.g. PO Box or URL to a pdf file.
A contract or other binding agreement, usually evidenced by signature(s).
A measurement of two-dimensional space.
A unit of two-dimensional area, such as square inches or hectares.
A very general term for the characteristic of something that is being measured. E.g., property (height) or a process (cycle time) or a behavior (loyalty).
An amount decremented or incremented by a series of transactions.
A primitive unit that cannot be decomposed into other units. It can be converted from one measurement system to another. The base units in gist are the seven primitive units from the System Internationale (SI): (meter, second, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, mole, candela), plus two convenience ones: each and usDollar.
A way of categorizing events. E.g., differentiating drilling versus cutting.
An address to which you can send mail, or that you could find in the physical world.
Any combination of descriptions of things offered together. Could be a kit (several parts offered together), but could also be a product plus a warranty.
NOTE: In short, an unambiguous characterization of what it is that a potential buyer is paying for.
A description of a product or service to be delivered, given in a sufficient level of detail that a receiver could determine whether delivery constituted discharge of the obligation to deliver.
A concept or label used to categorize other instances informally. Things that can be thought of as types are usually Categories.
EXAMPLE: Tags used in folksonomies; formal definitions from other systems.
NOTE: Often a 'bucket' can be modeled either as an owl:Class or as a gist:Category. Use the latter if you don't care much about the formal structure of the different types, or if there is a whole hierarchy of types that are going to be managed by a group separate from the ontology developers. The formal structure may be defined elsewhere and linked to, if necessary.
A ratio unit whos numerator and denominator reduce to 1
A ratio unit whos numerator and denominator reduce to 1
A unit that is expressed in units that have no conversions. It may be a simple unit. It may also be a product or ratio unit that bottoms out in simple units.
EXAMPLEs: the standard unit for acceleration is meters per square second (feet per square second requires a conversion)
NOTE: coherent unit is the physics term for this, informally you might think of it as the standard unit for a given dimension.
EXAMPLEs: a simple unit: kilogram
NOTE: in principle, the CoherentUnit for a ProductUnit or RatioUnit can be inferred by recursively decomposing the products and ratios into their respective CoherentUnits, bottoming out in SimpleUnits
Any identifiable grouping of instances. For instance, a jury is a collection of people.
EXAMPLES: A jury is a group of people, a financial ledger is a collection of transaction entries; a route is an (ordered) collection of segments.
An obligation (possibly unilateral).
This is for wikis that are about conceptual abstractions, all meta data, but also units, obligations? intentions, goals, rights, speech acts
NOTE: All contemporaneous events eventually end and, due to the nature of the open world, we can never be sure that a contemporaneous event hasn't ended. As a result, this is really a contemporaneous and historical event.
An event that actually started after the present time. When we record an end time it ceases to be contemperaneous
A document, program, image, etc. (Categories are not content until they are written down.)
Intellectual Property reduced to text, audio etc. If it contains text (written or spoken), it may be in a language.
An event with a probability of happening in the future, and usually dependent upon some other event or condition.
An obligation that is not yet firm. There is some contingent event, the occurrence of which will cause the obligation to become firm.
NOTE: A contingent obligation might have a getter counterparty (as in the case of insurance); but it might not (as in the case of an offer).
A collection of terms approved and managed by some organization or person.
NOTE: Count is not disjoint with all the other magnitudes, as there are some magnitudes that could conceivably be counted.
A measure that involves countable amounts (?eaches? as well as cases, etc.). Can be decimal.
A unit of counting, especially ?each?, but also units such as dozens.
The geopolitical body that runs a geopolitical region recognized as a country.
A unit of money. Note: this is the only unit whose conversion factors include time (i.e., the conversion rates change on a daily basis).
A unit to measure amounts of digital information.
The difficulty of reversing a commitment.
EXAMPLE: A car rental typically has a lower degree of commitment than an airfare reservation.
A unit to measure linear distance, such as feet or kilometers.
Time, but not on a timeline.
EXAMPLE: One week (or seven days), but not Jan 1, 2008 to Jan 7, 2008 (which is an interval). Intervals have durations, but are not themselves durations.
A unit to measure passage of time: hours, days, years.
A flow of electric charge.
Unit of electrical current, which is charge per unit time. The SI unit is the ampere. (Note that electrical current is a composed unit.)
Any place an electronic message (email, fax, etc.) can be sent.
Where the thing itself can be brought to the screen, viewed and possible modified. Documents mostly, but not printed ones
Something happening over some period of time, often characterized as some kind of activity being carried out by some person, organization, or software application.
A measure of distance, which could be distances over the Earth, and could also be height, width, length, depth, girth, etc.
Content which is in a particular format. (E.g., html, pdf, jpg.)
The real-world media type for content.
EXAMPLE: audio, still image, video, textual, physical (e.g., a statue), or performance (i.e. a play). Or it could be oil or pastel for a painting.
An individual point on the Earth's surface, identified by latitude, longitude and altitude. If altitude is missing, it is assumed to be at the Earth's surface. However, altitude is measured from sea level. these points are to the WGS-84 coordinate system using the GPS decimal lat/long
NOTE: Assume coordinate system used by Google (WGS 84 Web Mercator).
NOTE: A GeoRegion could be non-contiguous; e.g. the region governed by the USA is the region governed by the lower 48 states plus that of Alaska and Hawaii. Child classes in lower ontologies can make this distinction.
A bounded region (or set of regions) on the surface of the Earth.
EXAMPLES: The bounded shape that defines the region occupied by Crater Lake; the bounded area known as the contiguous USA.
NOTE: A GeoRegion has an area, but it is not itself an instance of the Area class. (Area in gist is a magnitude).
An ordered set of GeoPoints that defines a path from starting point to ending point.
A single portion of a GeoRegion which has been divided (i.e., segmented).
A three-dimensional space on or near the surface of the Earth, such as an oil reservoir, the body of a lake, or an airspace.
A specific intentional endpoint. One can tell whether it has been achieved, as opposed to an intention, which may not have an evaluation function.
EXAMPLES: The State of Washington Office of Financial Management; the Food and Drug Administration; the Scottish Parliament.
An organization established either by fiat (as a conquering army overtakes a land and declares a government) or by delegation from a fiat government, such as a state or local government or a specific agency. Differs from a corporation in that it cannot be owned.
NOTE: Establishment by a CountryGovernment may be indirect via local, regional, or national GovernmentOrganization(s) that ultimately are recognized by a CountryGovernment.
By default time instants are expressed in grenich, if you need to be explicit (to calculate offset for instance)
A collection of People. The group may or may not be an Organization. Many organizations consist of groups of people, but that is not a defining characteristic.
An event which occurred in time, with an actual end earlier than the present moment.
EXAMPLES: SSN for a person; serial number for a product; employee ID.
EXAMPLE: e.g. SSN for a person, serial number for a product, employee id
An amount of data, such as 6 petabytes, or 640KB.
A work, invention or concept, independent of its being expressed in text, audio, video, image, or live performance. IP can also be tacit knowledge, know-how, or skill. Also includes Brands.
NOTE: For literature this could be called the ?Work?, except that ?work? is a highly overloaded term (expenditure of energy, resource consumption, art). Often the first expression precedes our recognition of the IP, but subsequent expressions are known to be derivatives of the IP, even if they are expression-to-expression translations (or copies).
EXAMPLES: ?The Old Man and The Sea?; the Page Rank algorithm; Coca Cola
Goal, desire, aspiration. This is the "teleologic" aspect of the system that indicates things are done with a purpose.
A recognized, organized set of symbols and grammar.
EXAMPLES: Natural languages such as English and Spanish; computer languages such as OWL, Python, and XML.
NOTE: In the open world, you must assume that it might have since died.
NEGATIVE EXAMPLES: fictional life forms such as Unicorns or Mickey Mouse.
Something that is now, or at some point in time was, alive and growing.
EXAMPLES: A cat, a mushroom, a tree.
A point in time expressed relative to a local time zone. Can be converted to Universal Time using the time zone offset. The precision is used to state how precise this instant is. Typical values would be day, hour, minute or second.
A measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle. This is based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.
The measure of brightness. The SI unit is the candela.
NOTE: Magnitudes of the same dimensional type (i.e., duration or electric current) can be compared with a greater-than or less-than operator, but can still differ in their relationToTheWorld type. (I.e., you can compare actuals to estimates or references, so long as the dimension is the same.)
Base class for units which can be converted. The primitive units can be converted from one measurement system to another; the complex units (ratio or product) have to decompose to their primitives.
NOTE: Note the precision should be in the same type of unit as the magnitude.
NOTE: Assuming an object is near the Earth's surface, weight and mass may be treated as equivalents.
A unit representing the amount of matter in a particle or object. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram.
A physicality on which a work could be implemented or exposed. E.g., paper, clay, or a computer monitor.
A specific instance of content sent from an Organization, Person, or Application to at least one other Organization, Person, or Application.
EXAMPLES: An email message, a phone call, a voice message, or a Web Service message.
Amount of a substance, as counted molecules.
Amount of chemical material. Measured in Avogadro units (moles) of 6.02 x 10^23 molecules.
A special type of magnitude, due to the way rounding is handled in math and the temporal aspect of conversion.
The equivalent of a directory, or a node in a navigational tree. Topics can be put into one or more of these.
NOTE: Obligations will often be governed by some Agreement or Offer.
A future commitment from one organization or person to another. Contracts are sets of obligations to do or forebear, or to indemnify or warrant.
A commitment to buy or sell a described or identified part or service.
A collection where the members are in a fixed sequence.
An Ordered Collection where no item can be of the same rank as any other item. In mathematical terms, this is a ?total order?.
A member of an Ordinal Collection. It necessarily precedes or is preceded by another Ordinal Member in the same collection. (This last condition cannot be formally stated in OWL).
A generic organization that can be formal or informal, legal or non-legal. It can have members, or not.
EXAMPLES: Legal entities like companies; non-legal entities like clubs, committees, or departments.
NOTE: There are a plethora of different kinds of organizations that differ along many facets, including members, structure, purpose, legal vs. non-legal, etc.
NOTE: there are various ways to represent percentage: 50/100 could be represented as ?50? or ?0.5?. gist uses the latter, as it involves fewer conversions for subsequent use.
A ratio where the numerator and denominator are of the same unit of measure.
A description of things one is permitted to do. This could be broad, such as free speech, but more often is very specific, such as the right of egress through a particular property.
NEGATIVE EXAMPLE: fictional characters.
NEGATIVE EXAMPLES: Excludes events that have no meaningful location, such as financial events or project milestones.
EXAMPLES: A meeting, a car accident.
An event that can be said to have occurred at some place in space.
NOTE: You could, at least in principle, put an RFID tag on members of this class. Physical things are made of something. E.g., statues are made of bronze.
NEGATIVE EXAMPLE: A discontinuous thing like a manufacturing line cannot reasonably have an RFID attached to it, even though its parts are not the same kind of thing as the whole.
EXAMPLES: a computer, a book.
NOTE: In practice, this always means that the parts are not the same kind of thing as the whole.
NOTE: An instance of this class must be a physical thing, and not just a categorical description. Example: an actual piece of gold, not ?gold? as a concept.
NOTE: Some things are substances at a macro level, but ultimately end up as not being divisible into the same kind of thing. E.g. sand vs. grains of sand., bacteria vs. an individual bacterium.
EXAMPLES: An amount of water, of penicillin, of sand, of gold.
An event which, at the time it is created, is to occur in the future.
A set of codes the postal authorities can use to deliver physical mail.
EXAMPLES: a street address, a PO Box, an FPO code, or the route codes.
Any of many ways of categorizing products, including models, NATO product codes, and the like.
A magnitude expressed as a product of primitives. (E.g., Force = M*A).
Offering something which could be physically warehoused or digitally stored.
EXAMPLES: Area and Volume are the classic cases. But other, more exotic cases exist, such as Newtons.
A unit of measure that is the product of two simpler ones.
A project is a task (usually a longer duration task) made up of other tasks.
EXAMPLE: Speed. The ratio magnitude is 60, the unit of measure might be MilesPerHour.
This is a number whose unit of measure is a ratio.
NOTE: A RatioMagnitude just has one decimal value.
A UnitOfMeasure composed of a numerator unit and a denominator unit.
NOTE: If needed, a conversion factor for a RatioUnit can be (recursively) derived from the conversion factors of the numerator and denominator units. E.g., the derived conversion factor from km/minute to meters/second is 1000/60 or 16 2/3.
EXAMPLE: Miles per hour.
A measure that was neither measured nor estimated but set by fiat. For instance, a goal. There is no Measurement associated with a ReferenceValue.
For pages that refer to things in the world. For gist this would be physical things, organizations, places, and events.
Content which has been expressed, either to print, or through speakers, or on a monitor.
A documented physical or functional need that a particular design, product, or process must be able to perform. Alternately, the obligation of a person or organization to behave in a certain way (i.e., drive on the right side of the road).
A description of things one is prevented from doing. Most laws are restrictions.
An enclosed area within a building.
A task planned to occur. When it was scheduled, it would have been in the future, but now might be in the past.
Superclass for all types of metadata, including owl concepts (such as class) and relational (tables, elements) and tool related (queries, RWRML maps etc etc)
A description of something that can be done for a person or organization (which produces some form of an act).
Each simple unit has a base unit and a conversion factor to the base. The bases are from the System International (SI). This is the number by which one multiplies a Unit by to get to base, or divides by to get from base. So the convertToBase for inch is 0.0254 to get you to the base (meter).
A Person or an Organization.
NOTE: Includes anything than can be party to an Agreement (e.g. Contract). But not all SocialBeing(s) can be parties to all Agreement(s). For example, minors can be beneficiaries, but perhaps not primary signatories on contracts.
A set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service.
This is for folksonomy type terms, which can be made up on the fly by users.
A task which has been defined and either scheduled or accomplished, or both.
A controlled vocabulary arranged as a hierarchy of concepts.
EXAMPLES: Mobile, fax, or landline phone number.
A numeric code a telephonic device uses for contacting another telephonic device.
The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale.
Unit of measurement for expressing temperature. Per SI, the base of temperature is in Kelvin, to allow for all units to be expressed relative to a real (in this case absolute) zero.
Something used to make instances in its own image. In manufacturing this would be specialized as a die to make stamped parts, cookie cutters are templates for cookies, and forms are templates for data.
NOTE: Use gist:basedOn to link the instantiation of a template back to its Template.
EXAMPLE: A form. A filled-in form has the structure of the form with data entered into some or all of the fields.
A prototypical task of a particular type, that will, when instantiated, generate an actual (unscheduled) task.
A relationship existing for a period of time.
NOTE: A temporal relation must be gist:connectedTo a minimum of two objects. For example, a temporal relation representing a period of employment is connected both to the person and to the role/position they held.
EXAMPLES: employs-Employment, hasStreetAddress-EstablishedLocation. One important context for reifying a property.
Content expressed as words and numbers (not graphics).
NOTE: Our identity criteria require that something refers to each Time Instant instance.
EXAMPLES: A literal instant (as in 12:01.0001 January 1, 2008), or a broader but still single point in time (January 1, 2008). In the latter case, we are declaring a time instant to be an interval with no duration (or really a duration only equal to its precision).
NEGATIVE EXAMPLE: ?8:00am? (with no date).
NOTE: The end should be later than the start, but this is not enforced via OWL.
NOTE: While Time Interval has a Duration, it is not itself a Duration.
EXAMPLE: Jan 1 through Jan 8, 2013.
A region that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. A typical time zone averages 15? of longitude in width and typically observes a clock time one hour earlier than the zone immediately to the east.
The algorithm for getting from Greenwich Mean Time to local time, which includes the time zone offset and rules about daylight savings time.
What the wiki page is about
Three-dimensional space, or equivalent fluid measurement.
Units of three-dimensional space, expressed here as an area times a distance.
Magnitude of mass. Assumes object is near the Earth's surface. Thus weight and mass may be treated as equivalents.
When something did start, therefore noting an historical event.
Connection between an ID and the thing that minted the ID. It may be a person or organization, or could be an algorithm (next available or random number generator)
pointer to the thing something was derived from
Points to a taxonomy item or other less formally defined class.
The kind of Behavior that took place during an Event.
The subject conforms to the Object, e.g. meet an obligation, meet terms of an offer, adhere to a specification
A non owning, non causal, non-subordinate (ie. peer to peer) relationship.
Relates a RatioUnit such as meters/second to the denominator Unit (e.g. second).
The source of a message or shipment
Transitive version of geoDirectlyContains
The subject geospatially contains the object. E.g. the area of a city contains the area of its neighborhoods
EXAMPLE: a table has an edge, a car has weight (which cannot exist unless the car exists)
NOTE: Cascading delete.
The subject exclusively has or possesses the object, the object does not have independent existence.
Relates a UnitOfMeasure to its BaseUnit. This indicates what kind Unit something is, e.g. saying that a furlong hasBaseUnit meter says it is a DistanceUnit.
EXAMPLE: saying that a furlong hasBaseUnit meter says it is a DistanceUnit.
Date a living thing was "born" (or germinated, for plants).
Points to a general class of places you can send messages including postal addresses, fax numbers, phone numbers, email, web site, etc.
The relationship between a whole and a part where the part has independent existence.
NOTE: No cascading delete.
NOTE: Use this property to directly associate parts. hasPart is the transitive version.
To have a comparable numerical value. Each magnitude has a unit.
Relates a Collection to its member individuals.
Used for informal hierarchical taxonomies. Supports polyhierarchies
An inverse functional version of hasMember to ensure that no OrderedMember can be in more than one OrderedCollection., which can quickly lead to problems.
The transitive version of hasDirectPart
Links a Magnitude to the degree of accuracy of the numeric value. This allows for fuzzy numbers. All magnitudes have a precision. Usually we don't record them. When we do this, it will be a value whose extent covers 2 standard deviations around the stated magnitude
EXAMPLE: Temperature precise to tenth of a degree C; TimeInstant precise to 24 hours.
NOTE: Most frequently apples to Magnitude(s) and TimeInstant. Could also apply to a measurement.
If there are many terms for a concept or specific instance, this is the one to use.
For a complex unit refers to a unit that has all the component parts in SI
A place that can be found on a map, has geo coordinates; you could live or work there.
A task that is part of a larger task. The time frame of the subtasks may overlap but may not extend beyond the timeframe of the parent task. A subtask may be part of more than one parent task.
Categories linked in this way are to represeent true sub types. The categories aren't subtypes but classes defined by a supercategory will be a superclass of one derrived from its sub
Used for taxos that must have single parents
Used for taxos that must have single parents
Which unit of measure you are using. All measures are in some uom, even if we don't know what it is initially.
This is like a uri: a thing can have more than one ID, but each of the IDs must refer to a unique thing.
The relationship of navigation to sub navigation or topic. A topic or node can be included in more than one higher level node. roughly the same as skos:narrower
Relates a ProductUnit such as square mile to the second of two units multiplied together (e.g. mile).
Relates a ProductUnit such as square mile to the first of two units multiplied together (e.g. mile)
Relates a RatioUnit such as meter(s)/second to the numerator Unit (e.g. meter).
Relationship where a Social Being can enjoy the rights of the asset being owned. Note this could be made temporal with gistTemporalRelation
The people or organizations participating in an agreement or obligation
NOTE: Most frequently apples to Event(s) and Offer(s). E.g. a conference or sale offer.
A date/time that was at least at some point in time in the future. It may be in the past now, but when we planned it, it was in the future.
A date/time that was at least at some point in time in the future. It may be in the past now, but when we planned it, it was in the future.
A generic ordering relation indicating that the Subject has the same order as or comes before the Object. The 'greater than or equal to' symbol is often used for this relation.
EXAMPLE: a task produces a deliverable.
The subject creates the object.
The entity that formally acknowledges the existence of, as the State recognizes the existence of a particular company
Date that something was posted, not necessarily the date it occurred. Must be after the occurred date, but could be before or after the planned date. (Unusual, but I could record today that I expected to be paid last week.)
A generic ordering relation indicating that the Subject comes before the Object, it may not be of equal rank. The greater than symbol is often used for this relation.
the "timezone" with Daylight savings adjust
Comment: this is not the inverse of fromAgent. A message can be from someone. If we made it the inverse the person would be "to" the message
a property that describes what would happen to trigger the contingent obligation. In most cases, before the Contingent becomes an Obligation, the triggered by event is a planned event (that is it hasn't happened yet -- if it had happened the contingency would no longer be contingent. In most cases it will be a ContingentEvent
Links to the string corresponding to Text
Add this number to get to the zero point. On the Celsius scale, the conversionOffset is -273.15 degrees C. On the Fahrenheit scale it is -459.67 degrees. Is equal to 0 when the unit has the same zero point as the base unit. e.g. inch, meter.
The conversion factor used to get to the base unit. E.g., multiplying by 0.0254 gets you from inches to meters. Divide by this number to go the other way. Used in conjunction with conversionOffset to convert from one unit to another. Degrees K = (Degrees F - conversionOffset) * convertToBase. Or K = (F-(-469.67)) * (5/9). To go the other way: F = (K * 9/5) -469.67. Try it on Google.
Note this kind of conversion will only work with temperatures if they are in Kelvin or Rankine (with a true 0). You multiple to get to the base, divide to go from the base. mph to mps is .44704. The multiple from kph to mps is .277778 . To convert 60 mph to kph is (60 * .44704 / .277778 or 96.56056 kph
Links to the string corresponding to EncryptedText
seconds since 1/1/1970 UTC (unix time )
Relates an individual to a casual name. NOTE: For more formal use, consider using a sub property of the object property, identifiedBy.
This is used for the actual value of a key or ID where you don't want the possibility of having more than one.
The standard symbol for the unit NOT using any special characters. E.g. square meter would be m^2 rather than m?.
The standard symbol for the unit in HTML format for pretty printing, may use special characters. E.g. to show square meter as m? rather than m^2, the value of this property would be "m²" This is for when Unicode not supported and the display will be HTML format.
The standard symbol for the unit preferred for pretty printing, may use special characters. E.g. square meter would be m? rather than m^2.